Dual sequential defibrillation (DSD) was ineffective overall in refractory ventricular fibrillation (v-fib) in terminating v-fib to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The subgroup in which DSD was performed earlier (shocks 4-8) had improved ROSC.
Advanced airway management (AAM) was associated with increased overall survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) (though not survival with favorable neurological outcome) in patients with non-shockable initial rhythm. There was no difference in survival with use of AAM in patients with initial shockable rhythm.
There was no difference in an endotracheal tube vs supraglottic airway for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the outcomes of return of spontaneous circulation, survival to admission, survival to discharge, or survival with good neurological outcome in studies with low risk of bias in this large metaanalysis.