The pediatric trachea is elliptical at the infraglottic level, with the transverse diameter being narrowest. The endotracheal tube size formula, (age/4) + 3.5, with a cuffed tube makes more sense anatomically.
Physicians who wrote for the most antibiotics were also the ones who diagnosed sinusitis most often. To justify writing for an antibiotic, there was a coding bias to call it “sinusitis” when in fact, it probably was just a cold.
Intranasal tranexamic acid with nasal compression was as effective as Merocel nasal packing for bleeding cessation in anterior epistaxis, had a lower rebleeding rate, and was better tolerated than nasal packing.
Codeine prescriptions for children after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy substantially dropped after the FDA issued a black box warning over safety concerns. Still, 1 in 20 children continue to inappropriately receive codeine after T&A.
For patients on antiplatelet agents with epistaxis, tranexamic acid (TXA)-soaked pledgets were far more effective than lidocaine with epinephrine-soaked pledgets at stopping bleeding within 10 minutes and were better tolerated by patients.
In patients age 5 years through adulthood with sore throat of any cause, use of a single, low-dose steroid (most often dexamethasone 10mg or 0.6mg/kg for children, max 10mg; most given orally) were twice as likely to have pain relief at 24 hours.
Allowing parents the option to wait and see if their child did not improve or worsened in 48 hours after the diagnosis of acute otitis media in the ED vs. filling the prescription right away resulted in a dramatic reduction in antibiotic use with little downside in this RCT.