A standard 5cm 14-16 gauge needle for chest decompression was more than twice as long as needed for children < 13 years old based on CT chest wall thickness (CWT).
There was no difference in an endotracheal tube vs supraglottic airway for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the outcomes of return of spontaneous circulation, survival to admission, survival to discharge, or survival with good neurological outcome in studies with low risk of bias in this large metaanalysis.
It is estimated that to place an endotracheal tube (ETT) successfully in 30-60 seconds, using direct laryngoscopy, would take 3-5 years of experience and 137-243 endotracheal intubations (ETI). Increased experience did not reduce the time chest compressions were paused. The key take home is that ETI during CPR is really hard. Be prepared.
For adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, initial laryngeal tube insertion by emergency medical service providers was associated with improved 72-hour survival, return of spontaneous circulation, hospital survival, favorable neurologic outcome, and airway success compared to initial endotracheal tube insertion.
Epinephrine for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest improved overall 30-day survival (3.2%, epi vs 2.4%, placebo) but did not improve survival to discharge with a good neurological outcome. In fact, more patients who received epinephrine and survived had severe neurological impairment than in the placebo group.