In heroin users specifically, 5% needed either repeat naloxone or oxygen > 2 hours after initial naloxone reversal. Observation for 3 hours may be safer, especially for those with polysubstance abuse.
Management of nerve agent (NA) poisoning requires recognition of the syndrome and availability of the antidote. It is important to remember that besides the classic “SLUDGE” and “Killer B’s,” there is also the nicotinic syndrome which can cloud the clinical presentation. Add the “weekdays” mnemonic for nicotinic effects to your list of symptoms in NA toxicity.
Individual risk factors associated with the development of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (SAWS) included a history of delirium tremens and baseline BP ≥ 140mmHg but no individual symptoms or signs associated with exclusion of SAWS. Composite measures fared better, such as the Prediction of Alcohol Withdrawal Severity Scale; a score ≥ 4 had a LR of 174 (95% CI 43-696).